greater  Zandvlei  Estuary  Nature  Reserve

 Re-evaluation and GIS Mapping of the remaining Habitat Status of the Cape Flats Kedestes subspecies by Andrew Taylor.

This docuent may not be copied or reproduced in any format without the prior written consent of the author.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. ABSTRACT

2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 Classification
2.2 Habitat

3. STUDY OBJECTIVES

4. STUDY AREA
4.1 Locality
4.2 Climate
4.3 Vegetation Type
4.3.1. Distribution of Endangered Cape Flats Dune Strandveld
4.3.2. Landscape Features
4.3.3 Geology and soils
4.3.4 Important taxa
4.3.5 Fire
4.3.6 Threats to this vegetation type

5. METHOD
5.1 Fieldwork
5.2 “Laboratory” work

6. INDIVIDUAL STUDY SITES
6.1 STRANDFONTEIN
6.1.1 Strandfontein / Spine Road
a). Right hand side of the Spine/Strandfontein intersection
b). Left hand side of the Spine/Strandfontein intersection
c). Vesuvius Avenue
d). Coastal Park Landfill Site
6.2 RETREAT
a).Flora rd
b).Retreat swimming pool
c). Toring Road
6.3 WESTLAKE
6.4 RONDEVLEI NATURE RESERVE (RNR)
6.4.1. 14th Avenue “G “Gate (RNR)
6.4.2. Western Fence line (RNR)
6.5. DRIFTSANDS NATURE RESERVE
6.6. THE GREATER ZANDVLEI ESTUARY NATURE RESERVE
6.6.1 Zandvlei: Site 1
6.6.2 Zandvlei: Site 2
6.6.3 Zandvlei: Site 3
6.6.4 Zandvlei: Site 4
6.6.5 Zandvlei: Site 5
6.6.6 Zandvlei: Site 6
6.6.7 Zandvlei: Site 7
6.6.8 Zandvlei: Site 8
6.6.9 Zandvlei: Site 9
6.7 CAPE FLATS NATURE RESERVE U.W.C

7. DISCUSSION

8. CONCLUSIONS

9. RECOMMENDATIONS

10. REFERENCES

11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

12. APPENDICES

12.1 Book 1 xls. Kedestes GPS decimal conversions.


1. ABSTRACT

Kedestes barbarae bunta (Barber’s Ranger) and Kedestes lenis lenis (False Bay Ranger ) are both threatened, narrow endemic butterflies found on the Cape Flats. Their habitat consists of stands of Imperata cylindrica (Sword / Cotton Wool Grass), occurring in damp seeps between dunes, in the endangered, Cape Flats Dune Strandveld vegetation (Claasens 2000).

The remaining viable habitat status on the Cape Flats, of the two subspecies, was evaluated, surveyed and mapped for inclusion on the City of Cape Town (CoCT) GIS and Biodiversity Database : Cape Flats. This was achieved by conducting exploratory searches and the documentation of, on and around the Cape flats for all remaining, known and unknown viable stands of Imperata cylindrica to determine habitat status.

Imperata cylindrica populations were further surveyed for larvae as well as flighting specimens of both Kedestes barbarae bunta, Kedestes lenis lenis and Pelopidas thrax inconspicua (White - banded swift).

Larvae found were sampled to research the viability of starting a captive breeding programme, in order to ensure the subspecies’s survival. This was achieved by establishing, sleeved, live stands of Imperata cylindrica on which to house live larval specimens, in order to document and establish life cycles( as no record exists thereof (Ball, pers comm 2008), and the viability of starting a captive breeding programme.

The last study of the then remaining habitat and presence of the species was conducted in 2003, with only two sites on the Cape Flats recording as present. With new developmental pressures on these two areas looming, the possibility of extinction is high.

2. INTRODUCTION

The butterflies Kedestes barbarae bunta and Kedestes lenis lenis are Cape Flats (Cape Lowlands) narrow endemics. Although once common to the region (Claasens 2000) they are now threatened due to habitat destruction, in the form of extensive urban development urban development and encroachment of alien vegetation.

The 2003 study conducted by Tamaryn Allen, resulted in the two subspecies inclusion into the proposed Red Data Book for butterflies. The resultant status for each respectively is Kedestes barbarae bunta - Critically Endangered and Kedestes lenis lenis - Endangered (Ball, unpublished 2006). Reasons stated for no earlier recognition or inclusion into Red Data status has been attributed to little knowledge being available on the subspecies and they were possibly considered insignificant , due to their “ dull appearance” in comparison with other threatened species that are more pleasing to the eye due to more striking size and or coloration, such as the Brenton Blue Orachrysops niobe endemic to the Knysna area (Allen pers. comm. 2008).

2.1 Classification
The genus Kedestes (Watson 1893) falls under the family Hesperiidae (commonly known as “skippers”) (Order: Lepidoptera), originally described as Cyclopides (Trimen 1873). Kedestes barbarae bunta (Barber’s Ranger) was described as a subspecies in 1955 (Evans 1955), while Kedestes lenis (Riley 1932) was divided into the subspecies Kedestes lenis lenis and Kedestes lenis alba in 1997, when specimens from the Eastern Cape and the then Free State Provinces of South Africa were compared with Kedestes lenis specimens from the Western Cape (Cape Flats) (Allen, unpublished 2003).
Allen, in her 2003 study, conducted formal comparative genitalia studies on male specimens in order to confirm the taxonomic status to ensure accurate information in order to assign a formal conservation status in the proposed Red Data Butterfly Book (Allan pers.comm. 2008).
2.2 Habitat
Claasens, 2000 states that both butterflies are restricted to sites in and around the Cape Flats containing stands of Imperata cylindrica the larval food source.Personal communication with N. Helme revealed that Imperata cylindrica is widespread from Cape Town through central Africa and Asia (considered in many places as a problem grass species). Yet these butterfly species are restricted to dune slack wetlands and damp grassy locations in the south western corner of the Cape Flats (Ball, pers. comm. 2008).

This habitat differs from that of other southern African Kedestes species in that it falls in a winter rainfall region and at a lower altitude. Kedestes barbarae barbarae is found at altitudes reaching 2 800 m in Lesotho (Allen pers. comm. 2008), whereas the Cape subspecies Kedestes barbarae bunta only occurs at altitudes at below 10 m (Gibbs pers. comm. 2008).

In the 2003 study conducted by Allen, Kedestes barbarae bunta is noted to only have been recorded at two sites on the Cape Flats, namely Steenberg railway station in Retreat, and a few kilometers to the east, in Strandfontein. With the Strandfontein site being the last known locality for the subspecies, as Steenberg station is now developed as a residential housing area. Museum specimens were last retrieved here in 1947 (Dickson and Kroon 1978). Allan (unpublished,2003) further states that the Strandfontein site experiences frequent fires and illegal dumping , with a major arterial road running through the site, as well as the area being zoned for future housing development.

Kedestes lenis lenis has been recorded at three sites in Strandfontein and inside the protective boundaries and in the vicinity of two City of Cape Town (CoCT) Nature reserves, namely Rondevlei and Zandvlei Nature Reserves both containing suitable habitat for both subspecies (Claasens 2001).

Kedestes larvae are not adapted to survive fire, therefore the common occurrence of illegal fires, can destroy an entire population if a complete stand of Imperata cylindrica is burned. Allan (2003) records such a fire, which occurred in 2001 that eradicated a stand of Imperata cylindrica that contained the then highest known concentrations of Kedestes barbarae bunta. As a result no further sightings of the subspecies in that area were recorded since.

Personal communication with D. Gibbs (2008) revealed that most butterflies of the Hesperid family do not fly for long distances, at a great height or with much mobility (hence the common family name of “Skippers”. With individuals tending to remain in the vicinity of the grass from which the Imago emerged, leading to the assumption that the butterflies do not seek out new habitat in the event of a fire. As a result fire is therefore considered a threat if it passes through an entire site / stand and or occurs to frequently within an area, as this can destroy a population or drastically reduce population numbers to such a degree that larval or imago numbers that remain, are to few, in order to sustain a viable population.

3. STUDY OBJECTIVES

In the 2003 study carried out by Allan, the then remaining habitat on the Cape Flats was investigated. It is now necessary to re-evaluate to what further extent the subspecies are currently threatened and to ascertain of the previously recorded habitat sites, if and where Kedestes are currently found and the factors particular to each site possibly threatening or diminishing the quality of the remaining habitat.

The aim of this report is therefore to investigate the previously documented / identified habitat sites, in order to evaluate how much viable habitat remains, as well as the possibility of previously unrecorded sites. Too evaluate survey and map the remaining possibly viable habitat for inclusion on the City of Cape Town (CoCT) GIS and Biodiversity Database: Cape Flats. Too investigate the possible presence of the subspecies within the identified sites and the collection of live samples from sites in order to document the previously unrecorded instars (larval forms / stages), pupae and imagos (emerged butterflies). As well as to asses the viability of implementing a captive breeding programme.

4. STUDY AREA

4.1 Locality
The study area is situated on the Cape Flats (Cape Lowlands) within the City of Cape Town (CoCT) on the Cape Peninsula, and comprises a number of stands of Imperata cylindrica from various localities within the aforementioned area. (Each site will be documented individually with corresponding GIS maps and visual images, in section 6- Individual study sites.
4.2 Climate
The study area experiences a Mediterranean - type climate with cool, wet winters (winter rainfall region) and hot, dry summers, the summer months are from October to April and the winter months are from May to September (South African Weather Service 2003). The South African Weather Service (2003) has recorded an average minimum and maximum temperature for summer 16°C and 26°C respectively. The average minimum and maximum temperature for winter is 8°C and 18°C respectively (South African Weather Service 2003).
The climate of the Cape Peninsula is predominantly controlled by two systems. During summer months, the Atlantic high-pressure systems (with an anti-cyclone wind flow) are located in the south (Paterson-Jones 1991). Mucina & Rutherford (2006) reported that these high-pressure systems are located near 37° S in summer. According to Paterson-Jones (1991), these pressure system force cold fronts away from the continent and cause strong south easterly winds to blow after relatively calm conditions. As winter approaches these pressure systems moves north to approximately 32° S (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006) resulting in cold fronts crossing the Western Cape penetrating inland for varying distances (Paterson-Jones 1991), according to Paterson-Jones (1991), these cold fronts result in strong, north-westerly winds with rain following (the Cape Flats receives an average of 515mm rainfall per year (South African Weather Service 2003).
Mucina & Rutherford (2006) further state that relative humidity is highest along the coast in summer but high values are also reached inland during winter. In terms of wind speed, the southerly gradient winds are reinforced by the sea breeze over False Bay and raises maximum wind velocities in the early afternoon (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006). Rutherford & Westfall (1994) add that lightning frequency and hail are rare in the western parts of the biome where the study sites are located.
4.3 Vegetation Type
The study sites are located within the Fynbos biome, a biome renowned for its floristic diversity. The fynbos biome is characterised by the co- dominance of evergreen, sclerophyllous plants that do not exceed three metres in height (Rutherford & Westfall. 1994). Within the fynbos biome, many different vegetation types exist depending on the geology, soil and other environmental conditions occurring at a particular area.
The vegetation type of the study area is predominately classified as the Endangered Cape Flats Dune Strandveld described by Cowling et al (2003) as a dense to open shrubland of medium height (0.5 – 1.5 m) with a biomass of 3500 – 8250 g m-2. Cowling et al (2003) further adds that the vegetation in this vegetation type comprises mostly sclerophyllous, deciduous and evergreen plants, mostly shrubs, grasses and restios in terms of growth forms. Mucina & Rutherford (2006) add that the shrubs of this vegetation type are extremely low especially when closer to the seashore.
4.3.1 Distribution of Endangered Cape Flats Dune Strandveld
The largest section of this veld type extends across the south coast of False Bay, between Muizenberg and Gordon’s Bay (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006).
4.3.2 Landscape Features
According to Mucina & Rutherford (2006), this vegetation type has a flat or slightly undulating landscape between 0 – 80 m above sea level. However, the altitude may reach up to 200 m in places 
(Cowling et al. 2003).
4.3.3 Geology and soils
According to Munica & Rutherford (2006), this vegetation type is formed on mostly tertiary to recent calcareous sand that originated from marine sediments and overlying metasediments of the 
Tygerberg formation. According to Cowling et al (2003), outcrops of Sandveld Group limestone are also found along the False Bay coast.
4.3.4 Important taxa
Most authors (Acocks. 1988; Cowling et al. 2003; Mucina & Rutherford. 2006) refer to the following taxa as being prelevant to this vegetation type:

  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera;

  • Euclea racemosa subsp. Racemosa;

  • Helichrysum species;

  • Lessertia fruticosa;

  • Lycium;

  • Metalasia muricata;

  • Morella cordifolia;

  • Nylandtia spinosa;

  • Otholobium bracteolatum;

  • Passerina species;

  • Pelargonium species;

  • Phylica species;

  • Rhus species and

  • Salvia africana-lutea.

4.3.5 Fire
Fire plays a lesser role in Cape Flats Dune Strandveld communities. The fire frequency is usually low. Mucina & Rutherford (2006) report there is no data on fire-return intervals for Cape Flats Dune Strandveld currently exist but the interval is probably between 50 – 200 years.
4.3.6 Threats to this vegetation type
According to Low & Rebelo (1996), this vegetation type is under threat from urbanization. These areas are often encroached by human developments and infrastructure. Alien vegetation is another threat to this vegetation type. Acacia cyclops and Acacia saligna are common invaders in this vegetation type and often decrease the biodiversity of this vegetation type.

5. METHOD

5.1 Fieldwork
All previously documented sites of Imperata cylindrica and new sites discovered on the Cape Flats were located by consulting literature and knowledgeable persons and the area as a whole explored and surveyed. Sites were visited on numerous occasions, usually at midday, during warm weather conditions without strong wind, as these are considered the most suitable conditions in which to sight butterflies (Dorse, pers. comm. 2008). Each stand of Imperata cylindrica encountered was treated as an individual site, mapped by taking GPS co-ordinates and documented using a digital camera, for future reference.

Sites were examined for surrounding threats, associated plant species (noted as visually dominant) and the presence of Kedestes in the form of butterflies (searched by means of sweeping the grass with an insect capture net) or larvae (by finding feeding damage or actual larvae within specially constructed feeding tubes in which the nocturnally active larvae seek refuge during the day (Gibbs, pers. comm. 2008), in the stands of Imperata cylindrica.
5.2 “Laboratory” work
Larval samples were collected from sites within both Zandvlei and Rondevlei Nature Reserves and established on individual stands of Imperata cylindrica planted in containers and sleeved using a fine muslin cloth attached to a wooden frame that covered the growing grass. These individual “butterfly hotels” were placed within a protective green house at Zandvlei Nature Reserve, watered using the existing misting system within the green house, and monitored daily. Personal communication with Allan revealed that all previous attempts to establish and document the life cycle of the subspecies failed as the cut grass used to feed the larval samples, stored within glass bell-jars resulted in death of the larvae by what is assumed to be a mould that grew on the cut decomposing grass.

 

Figure 1: Sleeved stands of Imperata cylindrica, housing collected larval specimens (A. Taylor)

The flight period of Kedestes barbarae bunta is given by Claasens (2001) as being September - October, while Kedestes lenis lenis is given as November-March (Claasens .2001). Therefore due to the submission date of this report the study targeted primarily Kedestes barbarae bunta. As no documentation exists of the life cycle of the subspecies the author collected and transplanted samples of all larvae encountered in order to establish the butterfly species that would later emerge post pupation (Ball pers. comm. 2008).
Claasens (2001) gives three possible butterfly species utilizing Imperata cylindrica as a larval food source namely: Kedestes barbarae bunta, Kedestes lenis lenis and Pelopidas thrax inconspicua.

Two larval forms (instars) were encountered and collected by the author, photographs and corresponding data were submitted to the SABCA, ADU (South African Butterfly Collectors Association, Animal Demographic Unit based at the University of Cape Town (UCT). As well as too Dr. J. Ball for possible identification. Correspondence revealed that due to the lack of available research and no record of instar (larval) forms the it was necessary to record part of the lifecycle within a sleeved structure in order tom ascertain the true identity of the species collected. At the time of submission of this report all collected larval specimens were currently in pupae form.

 

Figures 2: Both assumed to be Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instars (Ball. pers. comm. 2008) (A. Taylor).

 

Figures 3: Both instar forms assumed to be Kedestes species, (Ball. pers. comm. 2008) (A. Taylor).

6. INDIVIDUAL STUDY SITES

Populations / stands of Imperata cylindrica encountered were treated as individual sites, and mapped by taking GPS co-ordinates as well as documented using a digital camera, for future reference. Each site whether previously recorded or newly discovered was assessed and is discussed and results given individually.
Documentation includes:

  •  Visually dominant plant species

  • The presence of larvae, feeding damage and or feeding tubes, as indicators of the presence of larvae utilizing the grass stands.

  • The presence of flighting butterflies.

  • Site photographs

  • Observations with regard to the condition of the said grass stands and the presence of threatening factors, such as litter, alien encroachment and development.

This information will follow, to be studied in conjunction with the presented corresponding GIS maps indicating the recorded Imperata cylindrica populations.
6.1 Strandfontein
In the original 2003 study conducted by Allan, a verbal description of the exact locality of this sight is given as “the top end of Strandfontein road, where it meets Spine road at an intersection, there are about seven stands of the grass to the left of Strandfontein Road (approaching the intersection, facing Baden Powell Drive) and one stand to the right”.

6.1.1. Strandfontein/ Spine road intersection
a. Right hand side of the Spine/Strandfontein intersection: 

Upon investigating of the aforementioned site on the right hand side of the road the author observed a small stand of Imperata cylindrica of approximately 2m in radius ( GPS 34º 04’ 42.8” S, 18º 32’ 40.2” E ).

Upon closer investigation no Feeding damage (an indicator of the presence of feeding larvae, Gibbs, pers.comm. 2008), was noted.

Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica,

  • Senecio halimifolius,

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Ehrharta villosa,

  • Acacia cyclops and

  • Bromus sp.

Other observations considered relevant included a busy intersection, with heavy traffic flow, the presence of dumping in the form of builder’s rubble, litter and high pedestrian traffic. The stand of Imperata cylindrica appeared to be small and patchy.

 

Figure 4: Indicates the author collecting GPS points on the small patch of Imperata cylindrica on the right hand side of the Spine/Strandfontein intersection. (M. de Kock).

b. Left hand side of the Spine/Strandfontein intersection:
Upon re- investigation of the original “seven stands of the grass to the left of Strandfontein Road (approaching the intersection, facing Baden Powell Drive)” as described in Allan’s 2003 study, the author noted:

Nine individual stands of Imperata cylindrica of varying sizes:

  • 34º 04’ 42.1” S 18º 32’ 40.6” E, approximately 3m in radius.

  • 34º 04’ 39.8” S 18º 32’ 40.1” E, approximately 2m in radius.

  • 34º 04’ 40.7” S 18º 32’ 39.4” E, approximately 1m in radius.

  • 34º 04’ 41.3” S 18º 32’ 40.8” E, approximately 3m in radius.

  • 34º 04’ 41.2” S 18º 32’ 40.8” E, approximately 1m in radius.

  • 34º 04’ 41.0” S 18º 32’ 41.3” E, approximately 4m in radius.

  • 34º 04’ 42.0” S 18º 32’ 41.2” E, approximately 5m in radius.

  • 34º 04’ 42.5” S 18º 32’ 41.8” E, approximately 3m in radius.

  • 34º 03’ 43.3” S 18º 32’ 41.9” E, approximately 8m in radius.

Upon closer investigation no feeding damage feeding larvae, larvae or flighting specimens were noted.

Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Senecio halimifolius,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Zygophyllum flexiosum and

  • Chasmanthe aethiopica.

Other observations considered relevant included a busy intersection, with heavy traffic flow, the presence of dumping in the form of builder’s rubble, litter and high pedestrian traffic. The stands of Imperata cylindrica appeared to be fuller in size and in a healthier condition.

 

Figures 5: Indicate the Imperata cylindrica stands on the left hand side of the Spine / Strandfontein intersection (A. Taylor).

 

Figures 6 Indicate the Imperata cylindrica stands on the left hand side of the Spine/Strandfontein intersection and clearly show the close proximity to the arterial road. (A. Taylor).

c. Vesuvius Avenue:
In the 2003 study, Allen indicates a stand of Imperata cylindrica “down Vesuvius Avenue, off Spine Road, on the left side of this road (behind a Telkom telephone mast), opposite housing.The area was searched by the author and colleagues and no sign of Imperata cylindrica was found.
Although clearing of aliens has occurred, dense stands of alien Acacia species dominate the remaing natural vegetation. Evidence of fire damage, perhaps from localised burning of brush piles was apparent as well as the large scale dumping of builder’s rubble and the presence of much litter.

 

Figure 6: The “Telkom tower” and surrounding vegetation. (A. Taylor).

d. Coastal Park Landfill Site:
In the 2003 study, Allan indicates a stand of Imperata cylindrica situated in Capricorn Park, with the instructions to the location of the site as follows” go down the first sand road opposite the old landfill site boom gate, the site is located at base of the dune ridge to the right of the road.”

Upon inspection and exploration of the area the dune line was not apparent, and the author deduces that it is now possibly consumed by the landfill mound, that makes up the present Coastal Park Landfill site. No stands Imperata cylindrica were found.

 

Figure 7: The Coastal Park Landfill site. (A. Taylor).

 

6.2 RETREAT
a). Flora Rd:
In the original 2003 study conducted by Allan lists two small stands of Imperata cylindrica in Flora road (Brinkman pers. comm. 2003), in her report the site was searched and the grass stands not located. Upon re-investigation by the author three stands of Imperata cylindrica were found and searched.

  • Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 19.7” S18º 27’ 51.2” E, approximately 3m in radius.

Here feeding damage was recorded with the Imperata cylindrica growth noted to be short and patchy.

  • Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 19.9” S 18º 27’ 50.9” E, approximately 3m in radius.

Here feeding damage and the presence of feeding tubes were recorded with the Imperata cylindrica growth noted to be short and patchy. The presence of two larvae forms were recorded (the first of a pink colour, therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008) while the second instar (larval form), was green in colour and therefore possibly a Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar (Ball. pers. comm. 2008). Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Pennisetum clandestinum,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum and

  • Vickia sativa.

 

 Figure 8: a1. (A. Taylor)                                          Figure 9: a2. (A. Taylor).

  • Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 15.9” S18º 27’ 50.9” E, approximately: 10 m x 10 m in size. 

Here feeding damage and the presence of feeding tubes were recorded with the Imperata cylindrica growth noted to be short yet denser than the neighbouring a1 and a2 sites. The presence of pink larvae forms were recorded (therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008). Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  • Pennisetum clandestinum,

  • Senecio halimifolius,

  • Convulva species.

  • Acacia saligna,

  • Ehrharta villosa,

  • Rhus glauca,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum and

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica

 

Figure 10: Site a3. - Flora Road Retreat.  (A. Taylor).

b). Retreat swimming pool: Exploration of the Public Open spaces in the Retreat area revealed two large populations of Imperata Cylindrica located in the vicinity of the retreat swimming pool. A number of GPS point readings were taken for later GIS mapping purposes. In the interests of the formatting of this written report, only a central GPS reading will be given. (The full GPS co-ordinates can be viewed as appendix 1 in the form of an Excel spreadsheet, created for GIS mapping purposes.)

  • Location, GPS: 34º 03’ 43.8” S 18º 28’ 34.9” E

Here feeding damage, feeding tubes and the presence of pink larvae forms were recorded (therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008). Visually dominant plant species noted, included: Pennisetum clandestinum, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Geranium incanum, Nylandtia spinosa, Carpobrotus edulis and Metalasia muricata.
The Imperata cylindrica population was noted to be dense and lush although the presence of large amounts of litter was evident. The site was criss-crossed with pathways and is obviously a high traffic pedestrian area.

 

Figure 11: Site b1. - Behind Retreat swimming pool. (A. Taylor).

  • Location, GPS: 34º 03’ 38.2” S 18º 28’ 38.1” E.

Here feeding damage, feeding tubes and the presence of pink larvae forms were recorded (therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008). Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  • Pennisetum clandestinum,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Geranium incanum,

  • Nylandtia spinosa,

  • Carpobrotus edulis and Metalasia muricata,

  • Lupin angustifolius and Acacia saligna.

The Imperata cylindrica population was noted to be dense and lush although the presence of large amounts of litter was evident. Again the site was criss-crossed with pathways and is obviously a high traffic pedestrian area, leading to and from the neighbouring school. As evident from the signs of a recent burn it was noted that of all the stands of Imperata cylindrica researched for the purposes of this report, this was the only grass population that exhibited signs of flowering.

 

Figure 12: Site b2. (A. Taylor).

 

Figure 13: Imperata cylindrica, flowering post fire. (A. Taylor)

c). Toring Road:
Further exploration of the Public Open Spaces in and around the Retreat area revealed small stand of Imperata cylindrica off Toring road.

  • Location, GPS: 34º 03’ 17.1” S18º 28’ 02.3” E, approx: 5m in radius.

Here feeding damage, feeding tubes and the presence of a single green instar green in colour and therefore possibly a Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar (Ball. pers. comm. 2008) was recorded. Of interest was the habitation of an empty feeding tube by a grass spider possibly Tibellus species was noted. The visually dominant plant species included:

  • Metalasia muricata, 

  • Rhus glauca and 

  • Nylandtia spinosa.

The presence of large amounts of litter was evident.

 

Figure 14: Site c. - Toring Road Retreat.    (A. Taylor).

6.3 WESTLAKE
Lake Road:
This population of Imperata cylindrica is located within the boundaries of the Greater Zandvlei Estuary Nature Reserve (GZENR), yet is unprotected by a boundary fence.

  • GPS: 34º 04’ 46.6” S 18º 27’ 34.8” E

Here feeding damage, feeding tubes and the presence of pink larvae forms were recorded (therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008). Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  • Pennisetum clandestinum,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Vickia sativa,

  • Scirpus nodosus,

  • Geranium incanum,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica,

  • Rhus laevigata and

  • Senecio halimifolius.

The Imperata cylindrica stand was noted to be dense, and in the author’s opinion heading towards senescence.

 

Figure 15: Lake Road site - Westlake. (A. Taylor).

6.4 RONDEVLEI NATURE RESERVE (RNR)
6.4.1. 14th Avenue “G “Gate, ( RNR)
Four stands of Imperata cylindrica were recorded at this 14th Avenue site, all falling within RNR yet just outside the protection of the western fence line. Again, a number of GPS point readings were taken for later GIS mapping purposes. In the interests of the formatting of this written report, only a central GPS reading will be given. (The full GPS co-ordinates can be viewed as appendix 1 in the form of an Excel spreadsheet, created for GIS mapping purposes.)

  • a1). Location, GPS: 34º 03’ 42.3” S18º 29’ 20.9” E, approximately 7m in radius.

  • a2). Location, GPS: 34º 03’ 41.5” S18º 29’ 22.2” E, approximately 5m in radius.

Here only signs of feeding damage were recorded. Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  • Pennisetum clandestinum,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum, 

  • Vickia sativa, 

  • Scirpus nodosus, 

  • Geranium incanum,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica, 

  • Rhus laevigata and 

  • Senecio halimifolius. 

These larger Imperata cylindrica stands were noted to in close proximity to one another, dense, and in the author’s opinion heading towards senescence.

 

Fig 16: a1- 14th Ave.RNR.  (A. Taylor).                     Fig 17: a2-14th Ave.RNR. (A. Taylor).

  • a3). Location, GPS: 34º 03’ 47.2” S18º 29’ 22.1” E

  • a4). Location, GPS: 34º 03’ 49.2” S18º 29’ 23.0” E

Here signs of feeding damage and the presence of pink larvae forms were recorded (therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008).
Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  •  Pennisetum clandestinum,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Vickia sativa,

  • Scirpus nodosus,

  • Geranium incanum,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica,

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Senecio halimifolius and 

  • Fragmites australis.

These larger Imperata cylindrica stands were noted to in close proximity to one another, dense, and in the author’s opinion heading towards senescence.

 

Fig 18: a3. - 14th Ave. RNR. (A. Taylor).

 

Fig 19: a4. - 14th Ave. RNR. (A. Taylor).

6.4.2 Western Fence line (RNR)
(The following sites are reordered within the fenced boundaries of Rondevlei Nature Reserve (RNR), a number of GPS point readings were taken for later GIS mapping purposes. In the interests of the formatting of this written report, only a central GPS reading will be given. (The full GPS co-ordinates can be viewed as appendix 1 in the form of an Excel spreadsheet, created for GIS mapping purposes.)

  • a5). Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 23.5” S18º 29’ 47.7” E

A large dense population of Imperata cylindrica was recorded at this site and extensive surveying of the area revealed a number of signs of butterfly activity in the form of signs of feeding damage, feeding tubes and the presence of pink larvae forms were recorded (therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008) It is also noted that the grass growth is not restricted to RNR and continues to grow onto the Lavender Hill side of the fence line. The presence of Acacia saligna is one of concern as the presence of these encroaching aliens is affecting the growth of the Imperata cylindrica negatively, which is visibly apparent upon inspection.

Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  • Pennisetum clandestinum,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Vickia sativa,

  • Scirpus nodosus,

  • Geranium incanum,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica,

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Senecio halimifolius,

  • Acacia saligna,

  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera,

  • Ehrharta villosa and 

  • Nylandtia spinosa.

 

Figures 20, 21, 22: Site a5. Western fence line RNR. (A. Taylor).

  • a6). Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 42.4” S18º 30’ 11.4” E, approximately 8m in radius.

Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  • Metalasia muricata, 

  • Mantedeschia aethiopica, 

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum, 

  • Bromus sp and 

  • Rhus laevigata.

The Imperata cylindrica growth here was recorded to be short and patchy with no feeding damage or feeding tubes found.

Figure 23: Site a6. South western fence line RNR. (A. Taylor).

  • a7). Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 01.9” S18º 30’ 11.7” E, approximately 13x5m in size. 

Visually dominant plant species noted, included:

  • Scirpus nodosus,

  • Asparagus sp,

  • Metalasia muricata,

  • Senecio halimifolius,

  • Acacia saligna and 

  • Chondoropetalum tectorum. A feeding tube belonging to Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar; typically constructed using 3 or more blades of grass (Ball. pers. comm. 2008) was recorded.

 

Figure 23: Site a7. South western fence line RNR. (A. Taylor).

  • a8). Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 34.2” S18º 29’ 52.1” E approximately 10 m in radius. Visually dominant plant species noted, included: 

  • Pennisetum clandestinum, 

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum, 

  • Vickia sativa, 

  • Scirpus nodosus, 

  • Geranium incanum, 

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica, 

  • Rhus laevigata, 

  • Senecio halimifolius, 

  • Acacia saligna, 

  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera, 

  • Ehrharta villosa and 

  • Nylandtia spinosa.

Here feeding damage, feeding tubes and the presence of an instar green in colour and therefore possibly a Pelopidas thrax inconspicua larva, as well as feeding tubes possibly belonging to Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar; typically constructed using 3 or more blades of grass (Ball. pers. comm. 2008) was recorded.

 

Fig 25: Site a8. Western fence line RNR, and 
Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar collected and transplanted at GZNR.
(A. Taylor).

6.5. DRIFTSANDS NATURE RESERVE

Hindle Road. (Engen garage):

Upon exploration of the Cape Flats for viable stands of Imperata cylindrica and the discovery of large stands of the grass behind the Hindle road Engen garage the author made contact with Candice Mostert, CapeNature Conservation Services manager of Driftsands Nature Reserve and upon enquiring of the possibility of stands of Imperata cylindrica within the Reserve boundaries was provided with the above map representing the grass stands discussed.

No populations of Imperata cylindrica were to be found within the reserve itself (Mostert, pers.comm. 2008). All populations were to be found on neighbouring privately owned land. Again a number of GPS point readings were taken for later GIS mapping purposes. In the interests of the formatting of this written report, only a central GPS reading will be given. (The full GPS co-ordinates can be viewed as appendix 1 in the form of an Excel spreadsheet, created for GIS mapping purposes.)

Upon further exploration of the site the author and colleagues, ascertained the following:

  • Location, GPS: 33º 58’ 52.6” S18º 39’ 26.3” E.

Here feeding damage and the presence of feeding tubes were recorded with in the Imperata cylindrica populations. The presence of two larvae forms were recorded (the first of a pink colour, therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008) while the second instar (larval form), was green in colour and therefore possibly a Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar (Ball. pers.comm. 2008).

Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Metalasia muricata,

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica,

  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera,

  • Typha capensis and

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum.

Despite the wet marshy nature of the dune slack area, it was observed to be criss - crossed with path ways, the presence of much human waste and litter indicated the high traffic nature of the site. Never the less the stands of Imperata were large, well established with definite butterfly activity.

Fig 26 and 27: Hindle Road, Engen garage, clearly indicate the large 
populations of Imperata cylindrica, the grass stands continue over 
the dune line visible in the background of figure 27. (A. Taylor).

6.6 THE GREATER ZANDVLEI ESTUARY NATURE RESERVE (GZENR)

This newly proclaimed (2006) CoCT Nature Reserve is found at 34° 5’S, 18° 28, E. (Grid reference 3418AB) five previously mapped stands (1-5) are situated in the road reserve section of GZENR along the northern fence line in the near vicinity of Steenberg railway station. These sites have the potential to be lost due to the proposed R300 toll road extension linking Muizenberg to Blouberg.
As stands 1-5 are well documented and are already included in the City of Cape Town (CoCT) GIS and Biodiversity Database: Cape Flats, no GPS co-ordinates will be given. Upon exploration of the area the author observed a further four sites that were recorded and included for mapping.

6.6.1 Zandvlei: Site 1
This stand of Imperata cylindrica was regularly searched for signs of butterfly activity, unfortunately as of the time of submission of this report, no activity was observed. Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Senecio halimifolius,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Carpobrotus edulis,

  • Rhus laevigata and

  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera.

 

Figure 28: Zandvlei 1 (A. Taylor)

6.6.2 Zandvlei: Site 2
This stand of Imperata cylindrica was regularly searched for signs of butterfly activity, here feeding damage and the presence of feeding tubes were recorded with in the Imperata cylindrica population. The presence of two forms larvae were recorded (the first of a pink colour, therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008) while the second instar (larval form), was green in colour and therefore possibly a Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar (Ball. pers. comm. 2008). Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Senecio halimifolius,

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Nylandtia spinosa,

  • Salvia africana lutea,

  • Rhus glauca and

  • Carpobrotus edulis.

  •  

 

Figure 29: Zandvlei 2 (A. Taylor)

6.6.3 Zandvlei: Site 3
This stand of Imperata cylindrica was regularly searched for signs of butterfly activity, here feeding damage and the presence of feeding tubes were recorded with in the Imperata cylindrica population. No live instar specimens were found, yet the evidence of butterfly instar activity was clearly observed. Visually dominant plant species included:

  •  Salvia africana lutea, 

  • Rhus glauca,

  • Osyris compressa, 

  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera and 

  • Cliffortia sp.

 

Figure 30: Zandvlei 3 (A. Taylor)

6.6.4 Zandvlei: Site 4
This stand of Imperata cylindrica was regularly searched for signs of butterfly activity, surveying of the site revealed a number of signs of butterfly activity in the form of signs of feeding damage,  feeding tubes and the presence of pink larvae forms were recorded (therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008)
Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Salvia africana lutea,

  • Rhus laevigata, 

  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera and 

  • Senecio halimifolius.

Figure 31: Zandvlei 4 (A. Taylor)

6.6.5 Zandvlei: Site 5
This stand of Imperata cylindrica was regularly searched for signs of butterfly activity; here feeding damage and the presence of feeding tubes were recorded within the Imperata cylindrica population. The presence of two forms larvae were recorded (the first of a pink colour, therefore possibly of the genus Kedestes (Ball, pers.comm. 2008) while the second instar (larval form), was green in colour and therefore possibly a Pelopidas thrax inconspicua instar (Ball. pers. comm. 2008).
Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Nylandtia spinosa,

  • Salvia africana lutea,

  • Rhus laevigata and

  • Cliffortia sp.

 

Figure 32: Zandvlei 5 (A. Taylor)

6.6.6 Zandvlei: Site 6
In this previously undocumented site GPS coordinates were taken for later GIS mapping purposes. In the interests of the formatting of this written report, only a central GPS reading will be given for this and the following three new sites. (The full GPS co-ordinates can be viewed as appendix 1 in the form of an Excel spreadsheet, created for GIS mapping purposes.) This stand of Imperata cylindrica was regularly searched for signs of butterfly activity; here feeding damage and the presence of feeding tubes were recorded within the Imperata cylindrica population. It was from this site that one of the possible Kedestes instars was collected for further study.
Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Nylandtia spinosa,

  • Salvia africana lutea,

  • Rhus laevigata and

  • Cliffortia sp.

  • Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 46.3” S18º 27’ 51.9” E

 

Figure 33: Zandvlei 6 (A. Taylor)

6.6.7 Zandvlei: Site 7
The following three additional sites are all to be found on and outside the northern fence line in close proximity to the Steenberg railway station, the site of the Museum specimens that were initially retrieved here in 1947 (Dickson and Kroon 1978).
it was from these small populations / stands of Imperata cylindrica that showed the most significant signs of butterfly activity in the form of feeding damage, feeding tubes and the sighting of a number of the pink instar forms. It was from these sites that the additional two instar samples were collected for further study.

Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Zantedeschia aethiopica,

  • Chasmanthe aethiopica,

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Solanum africanum and

  • Tetragonia fruticosa.

  • Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 45.5” S18º 27’ 55.3” E

 

Figure 34: Zandvlei 7 (A. Taylor)

6.6.8 Zandvlei: Site 8
Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Salvia africana lutea, 

  • Rhus laevigata,

  • Stenotaphrum secundatum,

  • Pennisetum clandestinum and 

  • Carpobrotus edulis

  • Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 45.9” S18º 27’ 55.1” E

 

Figure 35: Zandvlei 8 (A. Taylor)

6.6.9 Zandvlei: Site 9
This small stand of Imperata cylindrica falls outside the northern fence line of GENR, and although exhibiting signs of butterfly activity, appears to be severely threatened by the invasion of Pennisetum clandestinum.
Visually dominant plant species included:

  • Pennisetum clandestinum, 

  • Acacia saligna,

  • Scirpus nodosus and 

  • Acacia cyclops

  • Location, GPS: 34º 04’ 45.3” S18º 27’ 55.8” E

 

Figure 36: Zandvlei 9 (A. Taylor)

6.7 CAPE FLATS NATURE RESERVE U.W.C

  • Location, GPS: 33º 56’ 33.9” S18º 37’ 57.8” E, 32ha.

Upon exploration of the Cape Flats the Cape Flats Nature Reserve based at the University of the Western Cape was approached as large populations of Imperata cylindrica were observed when travelling along Symphony way and Vanguard drive.
As a result the author approached the manager of the Reserve to enquire of the possibility of the presence of the Kedestes subspecies within the protection of the Reserve. It was noted with interest that staff of the Reserve were not aware of the existence of the aforementioned subspecies and considered the large populations of Imperata cylindrica that dominate as a problem grass.
Exploration of the 32ha site, assisted by the Reserve labour force revealed signs of butterfly activity in the form of feeding tubes and feeding damage .As a result the addition of this valuable piece of protected Cape Flats Dune Strandveld as a potential site of viable habitat proves invaluable as it increases the size of the remaining potential habitat considerably , further more the threat of habitat destruction, due to development and the potential toll road does not exist with the grass populations offered protection due to the sites status as a Nature Reserve.

As a result of the extensive populations of Imperata cylindrica occurring through out the Reserve , and pending an intense surveillance of the sites, the Reserve as a whole was included as potentially viable habitat and included in its entirety for the inclusion on the City of Cape Town (CoCT) GIS and Biodiversity Database : Cape Flats.

7. DISCUSSION
Of the total of thirty seven (38) sites of Imperata cylindrica documented in this report, located in relative close proximity to one another on the Cape Flats Two of the originally documented 2003 sites no longer exist ( Coastal landfill site and the Vesuvius road site).
The ten (10) stands of grass on either side of the Strandfontein / Spine Road site did not exhibit any signs of butterfly activity when inspected and are threatened with the construction of the proposed toll road, as well as the high pedestrian and traffic activity of the area and the potential of inappropriate fires.

The re-discovery of the 3 Flora road sites (Retreat a1-3) all exhibiting signs of potential Kedestes subspecies activity, in the vicinity of the Steenberg railway station, the site of the Museum specimens that were initially retrieved here in 1947 (Dickson and Kroon 1978), is significant, yet the potential for the destruction of these sites is high as they found on Public Open Space (POS), managed by the City’s Parks Department and in line with the current City policy to mow POS sites and road verges three times a year (Holmes et al (2008), coupled with the presence of the potentially habitat transforming Pennisetum clandestinum and Vickia sativa ,(due to the invasive nature of these alien species) the potential for these sites to be compromised , is in the author’s opinion very high.

The discovery of two sites behind the Retreat swimming pool ( Retreat b1 and b2) as well as the inclusion of the small stand at Toring road Retreat ( Retreat c) all exhibiting varying signs of butterfly activity is significant. The potential for loss of these three sites is high, again due to the lack of protection afforded as they are unfenced and exposed to damaging activities, such as inappropriate fires, dumping, high human traffic and the common public perception (as was recently the case with the Retreat b1and b2 site), that bushy areas harbour criminals, resulting in the public call for the area of remaining natural vegetation to be cleared, after a young child was assaulted in the vicinity of the site.

The Westlake site although afforded protection as it falls into the newly proclaimed GZENR, remains exposed to possible destruction, as the site falls out of the protective boundaries afforded by a fence line. The potential for the site to be compromised is therefore increased due to negative human influence and activities.

Of the sites surveyed in and around Rondevlei Nature Reserve (RNR), four fall within the boundaries of RNR yet outside the protective fence line (RNR a1-5) all exhibited signs of butterfly activity, yet remain highly threatened due to negative human influence. RNR a5, the largest stand within RNR exhibited signs of butterfly activity, yet the presence of invasive alien vegetation could compromise the site in future. Site RNR a6 although not exhibiting sings of butterfly activity has the potential with correct management practice to become a large potentially viable habitat, RNR a7 and a8 exhibited signs of possible use by Pelopidas thrax inconspicua is worth consideration as the presence of this species can serve as an indicator of the condition of the Imperata cylindrica in terms of its viability for supporting larvae.

The Driftsands sites cover a potentially viable, large area in comparison to the previously encountered sites. The large area, as indicated on the accompanying GIS map, is by no means complete in terms of full investigation and documentation. The viability of the remaining natural vegetation in this area has the potential to be compromised due to the presence of alien invasive plant species, the high pedestrian traffic, associated dumping and littering an the possibility of inappropriate fires, coupled with the fact that the area is privately owned and is not afforded protection by the neighbouring Driftsands Nature Reserve.

The known and documented sites within the GZENR, (Zandvlei 1-5) all show signs of varying butterfly activity, yet in the author’s opinion , along with the additional Zandvlei sites (Zandvlei 6-9) need to managed expressly for the purposes of potential sources of viable habitat, with the manipulation of the natural vegetation being applied accordingly. The potential for the loss of all the Zandvlei sites is high due to the proposed toll road running directly through the area. The inclusion of the Cape Flats Nature Reserve in the surveying and mapping and the discovery of the site as a potentially viable habitat, is in the author’s opinion critical for the future survival of the subspecies due firstly to the protection afforded the Imperata cylindrica populations as well as the large area seemingly ’dominated’ by what was considered a problem grass species within the Reserve. The 32ha of the Reserve has the potential to be considered as a safe haven for the continuation of the Kedestes subspecies.

8. CONCLUSIONS
The remaining habitat status of Kedestes barbarae bunta and Kedestes lenis lenis, was in the authors opinion determined to be highly threatened, by factors such as the degradation (alien encroachment) and destruction (urban development). Very little evidence indicating the presence of the butterfly subspecies was found, from this it can be assumed that existing populations consist of very low numbers. The author concedes that although submitted, this study is by no means complete, firstly due to the fact that the flighting period for Kedestes barbarae bunta is currently underway, with the flighting and preceding instar developmental period of Kedestes lenis lenis just beginning ( according to established time lines offered in published literature ,e.g., Claasens 2001).

The “laboratory” investigation currently under way at the time of submission of this report will prove important, in the author’s opinion, as the documentation of the life cycles of both Kedestes subspecies is not recorded. Results so far show that in the right conditions the possibility of forming a captive breeding programme exists. Previous attempts to document the life cycle and developmental stages of the subspecies failed due to the death of the captive larvae (Allan pers. comm. 2008). At the time of submission of this report the assumed Kedestes larvae had successfully survived through a succession of instar forms (average four weeks) and are currently in the process of pupation.
The immanent emergence of the Imago and subsequent, confirmed identification will confirm the presence of the subspecies within the sites investigated and therefore aid in future investigative study into the identification of possibly viable habitat on the Cape Flats.

9. RECOMMENDATIONS
· Effective management techniques should be applied to existing Imperata cylindrica sites, in order to sustain butterfly populations. if the site falls outside the protection of a Reserve then the author suggests the collection and trans location of instars into suitable sites within the protection afforded by proclaimed nature Reserves.

  • Close collaboration between departments within the structure of the City of Cape Town, would result in the better management with regard remaining potential habitat sites that fall outside the protection afforded by Nature Reserves and fence lines.

  • An intensive public awareness campaign involving the media regarding the existence and plight of the subspecies could in the author’s opinion go a long way in the interest of the conservation of the subspecies.

  • Efforts should be made to prevent development on proposed sites, as was the case involving the Brenton Blue in the Knysna area, due to the increased public awareness and subsequent public interest in what has become a now “charismatic species”.

  • In order to manage identified sites correctly, factors such as the fire regime employed (e.g. the correct interval needed for Imperata cylindrica to be productive, including the need for the grass to burn) should be applied.

  • Areas within Reserves with established populations of Imperata cylindrica should be managed expressly in the interests of the butterfly subspecies (without the detriment of the biodiversity of the area as a whole).

  • Collaboration between authorities (SANParks, CapeNature and the CoCT), combined efforts and involvement of all authorities would result in increased awareness of the existence of the subspecies and resultant combined conservation efforts would increase the subspecies chances of survival.

  • The establishment of “captive” breeding programmes on newly established populations of Imperata cylindrica within the protective boundaries of Nature Reserves within the subspecies range could be implemented. As well as the establishment of stands of viable butterfly habitat in the form of populations of Imperata cylindrica should be considered.

  • Further intensive study is needed to ascertain the food sources of adult butterflies within the endangered Cape Flats Dune Strandveld.

10. REFERENCES

  • Allan, T. 2003. Evaluation of the Taxonomic and Habitat Status of Kedestes Barbarae bunta and K. lenis lenis, unpublished.

  • CAMPBELL, BM; COWLING, RM; BOND, W & KRUGER, FJ. 1981. Structural characterization of vegetation in the Fynbos biome. S. Afr. Nat. Sci. Progr. Rept 52.

  • CLAASENS, A. J. M. 2001.Butterflies of the Cape Peninsula .Tafelberg Publishers, Cape Town.

  • Climate of South Africa. 1998. Weather Bureau: Department of Environmental Affairs, Pretoria.

  • COWLING, RM; RICHARDSON, DM & PIERCE, SM. 2003. Vegetation of Southern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cape Town.

  • DICKSON C.G.C. and KROON, D.M. 1978. Pennington’s Butterflies of Southern Africa. A.D.Donker Publishers. London.

  • HOLMES, P; WOOD, J & DORSE, C. 2008. City of Cape Town Biodiversity Report 2008. Enhancing urban nature through a global network of local governments, LAB, City of Cape Town, Cape Town.

  • LOUW, AB & REBELO, ATG. 1996. Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria.

  • MUCINA, L & RUTHERFORD, MC (Eds). 2006. The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

  • Red Data status from Jonathon Ball- unpublished 2006. MSc thesis in Conservation Ecology.

  • RUTHERFORD, MC & WESTFALL, RH. 1994. Biomes of southern Africa: an objective categorization. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

  • WATSON .1893. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1893: 96.

11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author would like to thank all involved in the collection of data and samples as well as the assistance in the ongoing monitoring of the various sites covered in this report. Thanks go to all individuals who expressed an interest in this report and offered advice and assistance, in no particular order: Amalia Stipinovich, Tamaryn Allan, Dalton Gibbs, Cliff Dorse, Dr. Jonathon Ball, Edward Moses, Mark Arendse, Fay Howa, Marisa de Kock, Sebastian Osborne, Gavin Lawson, Herman Straude, Charmain Klein, Dawn Larson and John Taylor.

12. APPENDICES
1. Book 1 xls. Kedestes GPS decimal conversions (not attached).

 

Contact Andrew Taylor on dandy.lion1@gmail.com 

                                                                                                                                              

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